Typhoid Fever

What is Typhoid Fever?

Typhoid fever is caused by a bacteria, Salmonella Typhi, and is spread by contaminated food or water.  A traveller may become infected after eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected or by drinking water that has been contaminated by sewage containing the bacteria.  Symptoms may include fever, headache, weakness, stomach pain, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite and enlarged spleen.

Severe illness can lead to bleeding or perforation in the bowels.  Prevention includes food and water precautions as well as vaccination.

Two types of typhoid vaccine available; selection depends on the traveller’s underlying health and amount of time before departure.




Food & Water Precautions


  • Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it

  • Use purified water for brushing your teeth as well as drinking

  • Safe water to drink is boiled, purified, or bottled

  • Reliable purification systems include both a filter (for killing parasites) and a chemical (for killing viruses & bacteria) such as chlorine dioxide.

  • Drink carbonated drinks, hot tea or coffee

  • Avoid ice in your drinks

  • Be cautious of raw or undercooked shellfish, salads, and cold meats




Vaccine name: Vivotif®, Typhim Vi®, Typherix®

Minimum age: 2 years

Primary: single administration

Duration: 2-5 years depending on vaccine

Vivotif is an oral vaccine and needs to be kept in the fridge at home.